OPINION: Advice from upcoming DSU graduate

College graduation. I have been looking forward to this day since the first day of my freshman year. Now it is only a month away and there is a lot going through my mind. If there is any advice I could give to current college students, this is what it would be: 

Work during college

I have had a job throughout the entirety of my time at Dixie State University and although it has been difficult, it has taught me how to manage my time. I’ve also been able to develop a stronger work ethic, which is preparing me for a “real” job after graduation. Working full time throughout college has helped me be able to graduate debt-free. Students don’t have to work full time throughout their college education, but they should have a job. Also, the extra cash is a nice thing to have when struggling to feed yourself.

Go to class and do your homework

This may be the hardest thing for most college students to do (I know it has been hard for me). But I promise if you just go to class and do your homework, you will pass. All of the information you need about the topic you are studying will be explained in class. If you don’t miss class, you’ll be encouraged to do your homework so you don’t embarrass yourself by going to class without the assignment done. 

If waking up early is not your thing, think about taking classes that start later in the day so you can get the amount of sleep you need, but still have time to work a job or have a social life in the evening. I had to decide my school schedule based on my work hours, but the DSU academic advisers are available to help students balance their work and school schedules.

Take classes that interest you

Everyone is required to take those boring general education classes to graduate. I recommend taking those classes in your freshman and sophomore years and saving your electives for your junior and senior years. By doing this, it allows your junior and senior years to be easier and you can get experience doing things you want to do. Take electives you are interested in. DSU offers a variety of exciting classes that can show what you really want to do in the future. 

I was unsure of what I wanted to do as a career fall semester of my junior year. I took a writing class last minute because I did have an interest in writing. This class was a wake-up call and now I plan to be a journalist after graduation. You never know where life will take you from taking a random elective in college.

Take time to travel and take personal days

College is without a doubt a stressful time. I feel overwhelmed, stressed and full of anxiety more than I don’t. The only way I combat this is by taking time for myself and getting out of my regular routine. Whether that be going on a weekend trip to a national park, or spending an entire day locked in my room watching movies, a personal day (or days) is essential to college success. It allows your brain and body to recover and refresh from all of the stress you may be experiencing. As Donna and Tom from “Parks and Rec” would say, “Treat Yo’ Self!”

As Donna and Tom from “Parks and Rec” would say, “Treat Yo’ Self!”

Noelle Spencer, DSN Staff

Live in the moment

College flies by. Before you know it, you’ll be four weeks away from graduation, scared and unsure of what will come next. As I look back on my college experience, I do have regrets of not living in the moment more. I was always so focused on the future and what would happen after graduation.

If I can give any last pieces of advice, it would be to stop focusing so much on the future and experiencing what is happening in the now because college will be over before you know it.

DSU Women’s Volleyball gets revenge over Colorado Mesa. Lauren Gammell Rewrites DSU History

The Dixie State University women’s volleyball team stomped on Rocky Mountain Athletic Conference rival Colorado Mesa University on Saturday the night of Oct. 26.

The final score from the match was three sets to one and the Trailblazers claimed their revenge over the Mavericks from earlier this season when they were swept by CMU.

Head coach Robyn Felder said: “Knowing what’s on the line and coming into postseason, [we] want to host. So, I think the word is ‘hungry’ and we honestly wanted some revenge for what happened with [CMU’s] win, so, we were playing for a lot emotionally.”

The women’s volleyball team certainly are playing for a lot as they are currently No. 3 in the RMAC standings, according to the official RMAC website. Additionally, the 2019 RMAC Women’s Volleyball tournament is less than a month away, according to DSU Athletics.

“We haven’t reached our peak yet so we’re hoping we get better from here on out because we have a couple of big games coming up,” said middle blocker/outside hitter To’a Faleao, a senior recreation and sports management major from Lehi.

Right side hitter/middle blocker Lauren Gammell, a senior media studies major from Spanish Fork, helped secure the win for the Trailblazers by posting eight kills and 13 blocks against CMU, according to DSU Athletics.

With the 13 blocks Gammell got from the match, she broke her own DSU single-match record that she previously set earlier in the season. Also, Gammell now owns the DSU’s single-season and career record holder for both block assists and totals blocks.

Gammell said owning those records felt good and she’s excited for the rest of the season. She feels like the volleyball team is peaking at the right time and they’re ready for the postseason.  

I think the word is ‘hungry’ and we honestly wanted some revenge for what happened with [CMU’s] win, so, we were playing for a lot emotionally.”

Head coach Robyn Felder

“For [Gammell] to do what she did tonight against a team like [CMU] it’s so solid,” said Felder. “I mean, hats off to [CMU], they’re a phenomenal team, but it shows that Lauren works so hard and it’s about time she got that new record.”

The Trailblazers will be back in action at home against New Mexico Highlands on Nov. 1 and Colorado State-Pueblo on Nov. 2. Felder said the team is excited to host NMHU and CSU-Pueblo. She wants to take the momentum from these matches and run with it.

Felder said: “We’re heading into our last homestand, it’s senior night and we’re starting to peak. We haven’t peaked yet but we’re rising so it’s fun when we can just play like [we did against CMU] and dominant.”

The match against NMHU will be on Nov. 1 at 6 p.m. and senior night will be against CSU-Pueblo on Nov. 2 at 6 p.m. at the Student Activities Center.

COLUMN: Ballot box: Local elections are a time to enact change

City council election ballots have been sent out to voters, and it is not looking like much change will be coming to St. George politics.

“For too long St. George has been living in the past, playing it safe, and sticking to its conservative values. “

abby doman, DSN STAFF

The race started with 13 candidates but only six remain: Greg Aldred, Bette Arial, Ed Baca, Dannielle Larkin, Gregg Mcarthur and Jimmie Hughes. 

Arial, Baca, and Hughes are all incumbents for this election. Joe Bowcutt and Michele Randall, current city council members, are not up for election until 2021. Therefore, three seats are up for grabs.

Those elected will start their term in January 2020 and sit on the city council for four years, serving the people of Washington county and voting on local legislation.

Local elections are known to have a low voter turnout; however, St. George’s new mail ballot system did increase turnout within the last year.  

According to County Clerk Kim Hafen, voter turnout reached 78.6% in the 2018 election. In 2014, Hafen reported a 44.8% voter turnout.

With this influx of voter participation, there is a momentum for change. For too long St. George has been living in the past, playing it safe, and sticking to its conservative values. 

But times are changing. 

St. George should not be electing a councilman such as Aldred that continues to rally for President Donald Trump or who does not support increasing taxes for developing our roads, which are in dire need of help but rather thinks St. George should start focusing on developing air travel

St. George does not need a politician who has a history of publishing offensive comments on his blog, like Baca. 

St. George deserves candidates who are passionate and excited. Someone who can represent the younger, changing ideas that are developing in our small town. Candidates who can bring the average perspective to the St. George City Council. 

When you send in your ballots over these next couple of weeks, remember these things. 

Remember that it is time for a change in Southern Utah and you have the power to make a difference.

To find out more about your city council candidates, visit the St. George chambers website. 

You can register to vote online for this year’s city council election until Oct. 29; however, if you do not meet this deadline you can register at your polling location on Oct. 5 from 7 a.m. – 8 p.m, when elections will be held.

Fall brings beautiful colors, cool breeze, Halloween spirit

By: Lindsey Grenowich

It was a long, hot summer here in St. George awaiting the crisp fall season that is filled with plenty of spooky fall things to do right here in St. George.

Many of us share the same love of fall for the changing of the leaves, cooler weather, the pumpkins and all that spice. Fall brings a sense of sweater weather, sweet drinks, musky scents and warm meals. 

Everyone has their personal favorite parts of every season, but Academic Adviser Allie White said the fall is a special season for her.

“I love going up into the mountains and seeing how pretty that is and just appreciating the beauty of the season,” White said

St. George is known to be the desert of Utah, but in the fall, the leaves lay on the ground and cover the red desert sand disguising the dry climate, allowing people to slip into the comforts of fall. 

Kade Archibald, a freshman finance major from Logan, said, “T-shirt and shorts is very St. George during the whole year.”

Fall is something different here; the whole town becomes a part of the Halloween spirit, Archibald said.

With Halloween right around the corner, DSU is preparing for one of the school’s biggest events on campus: the Chaos Dance. Students will join together for a party in the Kenneth N. Gardner Student Center and will end with the heading out to the O.C. Tanner Fountain for the university’s long-running tradition of becoming a True Trailblazer by kissing someone under the fountain at midnight.

Jenna Beatty, a freshman general studies major from Lehi, said she has never been to the dance before but is looking forward to it.

“I am planning on dressing up with my roommates,” Betty said. “I haven’t decided if I will participate in True Trailblazer.”

There are also plenty of fun and festive activities to do around town this time of year. 

“This year I am going to Staheli Farm Field of Screams,” said Colin O’Grady, a junior psychology major from San Diego. “As a college student, I like to do something that is free. In St. George I like to go to the secret garden.”

During the month of October, The Red Hills Desert Garden hosts an annual event called the Scarecrow Walk and Haunted Canyon. Local groups and shops decorate scarecrows that line the trails of The Red Hills Desert Garden. The haunted canyon is also decorated with skeletons, spiders and other spooky things. It is open for the public to walk through and view until Oct. 31.

Staheli Family Farm is a local family farm that puts on several different Halloween events and attractions including Field of Screams, Family Farm Dance Nights, Giant Pumpkin Drop, Witches Night Out, Corn Maze, Spring Zombie Rampage and much more.

At around $10 per person, depending on the attraction, it is an affordable spooky choice for the Halloween season.

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Dance program hosts summer study abroad auditions

Dancing, experiencing Italian culture, eating gelato and a lot of walking is just a few of the activities students who are accepted to the Florence Summer Dance program will experience.

This year, the program has become part of Dixie State University’s Study Abroad, which means scholarships and funding are more readily available than in previous years. DSU has participated in the Florence Summer Dance for two years and is elevating the experience by joining it with an official university program.

“You’re working on your technique, but also dance.”

Artistic Director Liliana Candotti

Artistic Director Liliana Candotti has been a part of the program for 15 years, said dance faculty member Jenny Mair. Candotti is from Italy and recruits from schools all over the country for this program every year.

The dance auditions for the program were held Friday Oct. 25. Candotti selected dancers who are intermediate level or above to travel to Europe over the summer.

During the auditions, Candotti told the dancers, “You’re working on your technique, but also dance.”

Candotti taught a few sets of moves and then watched as she put the dancers into groups to show her their dance moves . They repeated combinations several times to music and Candotti said she watched for artistry and technique.

This year, the dance faculty spread word about the auditions through flyers and emails hoping to gain a variety of dancers to audition.

Falynn Mackey, a sophomore dance major from Evanston, Wyoming, who auditioned this year said, “I’ve never been out of the country, so this is a good opportunity to travel.”

Mackey said she is excited for the cultural immersion and making connections with dancers from all over the world.

Dance instructors from the U.S. and Europe will be teaching the students who go. The dancers will have three classes a day as well as rehearsals for the final performance which happens on the second half of the trip. In the past, the final performance has been held in historic places such as in an old villa or church which is no longer in use. Students will be experiencing the food, history and all Italian culture has to offer.

It’s not all work though. Saturday and Sunday are considered “free days,” in which dancers can go on tours and explore the city. As Florence is relatively close to Rome and Venice, Candotti said she encourages students to explore outside of the city they stay in.

Several dancers who auditioned from DSU last year and went to Italy this last summer re-auditioned this year to get the experience once again. Eight out of the 13 selected last year ended up going and four of them were back at this year’s auditions telling the whole group how wonderful the pizza in Italy was.

Candotti said the trip itself helps students build their dance resume and gain a multicultural experience.

“It’s a great experience for the human being,” Candotti said.

Oldest student attending DSU, 77 years old

David Walter begins his typical day by getting ready for school at Dixie State University. David Walter heads into his English class at 9:30 a.m. and, just like any other DSU student, he endures the next lesson ahead. After classes, he then heads to work at 1 p.m., where he is a bus aide for special needs children at the Washington County School District.

What sets David Walter apart from other students? He is 77 years old, making him DSU’s oldest student.

David Walter graduated from a Catholic high school in Coeur d’Alene, Idaho in 1960. While working trying to save enough money to go to college, he received a draft notice for the Vietnam War. He joined the US Navy in lieu of participating in the draft since everyone drafted was sent to Vietnam immediately after boot camp.

While serving in the Navy, David Walter was sent to electronics school for a year and crypto electronics school for an additional eight months. After schooling, he was sent to the Philippines where he served in a communication station until he received an honorable discharge at the end of his enlistment in 1968.

“By this time, I was married with two children and life got in the way of a college education,” David Walter said.

After moving to Utah, David Walter met his now-wife, Donna Walter. She decided she wanted to go to college at DSU. They could not afford for both of them to be students at the same time even with financial aid funding, so Donna Walter pursued schooling first. 

Donna Walter just graduated spring 2019 with two bachelor’s degrees, one in clinical psychology and one in art. She said her plan is to start a non-profit mental care services center for youth, and David plans to assist her when he receives his degree in communication studies.

“The only thing you get to take with you when you die is your intelligence. So, it’s never too late to learn.”

David Walter, oldest DSU student

“Her success is part of the reason I am now enrolled at DSU,” David Walter said. 

David Walter has many other hobbies including volunteering at Tuacahn and Switchpoint, participating in the National Alliance on Mental Illness club, fishing, and woodworking.

David Walter plans to continue working on his associate degree in communication studies which will progress to a bachelor’s degree, keep giving back to the community by volunteering, and partaking in his wife’s future non-profit youth mental health services.

“The only thing you get to take with you when you die is your intelligence,” David Walter said. “So, it’s never too late to learn.”

Podcasts: the best in popular genres

If you’ve ever found yourself stuck hearing the same cycle of songs on your phone or the radio, you might want to take a look into podcasts.

Podcasts can provide an in-depth overview of a certain subject that can span a wide variety of categories. Crime, talk shows, and comedy and are just a few genres of podcasts that are popular right now.

Best talk show podcast

The Joe Rogan Experience is a podcast that has boomed in popularity in the past few months, according to Social Blade. The podcast is hosted by American comedian, actor, sports commentator, martial artist and television host Joe Rogan. It has become one of the world’s most popular podcasts sporting millions of viewers per episode on average.

The podcast is attributed to being so popular because of the large variety in guests such as American whistle-blower Edward Snowden and the man who wants to take us to mars, the CEO of SpaceX and co-founder of Tesla, Elon Musk.

The Joe Rogan Experience podcast provides a diverse platform for people who want to understand public figures while still keeping the show in a light-hearted manner.

Jacob Medsker, a sophomore business and marketing major from Tooele, said: “The Joe Rogan Experience is kind of controversial because of the guests he can get on the show. It shows an interesting side of celebrities you normally wouldn’t be able to get on television.”

Best crime podcast

The best crime podcast would have to go to the Cold podcast. This podcast offers a real in-depth analysis of a cold case. Dave Cawley investigates the disappearance of Susan Powel, a wife, mother, and working professional from Utah, in December of 2009. The podcast explores three aspects of the case: Susan Powell’s abusive marriage she was trapped in, the totality of the evidence against her husband, Josh Powell, and the records revealing the grooming Josh Powell went through via his abusive father Steven Powell that shaped him into the man he would become.

“Its an ugly side to some real-life horror. Stuff like this happens more often than you would think.”

Justin Warrick, sophomore sociology major

For those looking to glimpse at any law enforcement careers or are looking for a thrilling story about crime, the Cold podcast is the podcast for you.

“Its an ugly side to some real-life horror,” said Justin Warrick, a sophomore sociology major from Tooele. “Stuff like this happens more often than you would think.”

Best comedy Podcast

“What’s up, hot dog?” is the common phrase you will hear when tuning into “Comedy Bang! Bang!”

“Comedy Bang! Bang!” is a weekly comedy studio podcast hosted by writer and comedian Scott Aukerman. This podcast is full of weird and strange comedy bits, such impersonations of famous celebrities and improv-style games that the host and guest star participate in.

If you are interested in a podcast that doesn’t take itself too seriously, this may be what you’re looking for. Comedy podcasts also provide a way to de-stress with a good laugh.

Andrew Austin, a sophomore business administration major from Tooele, said he enjoys when podcasts give an in-depth, well thought out show. As opposed to television, Austin said this gives the audience a chance to assess and really understand what the show is trying to provide.

“Its what the people want,” Austin said. “People can finally have more than a five-minute late show interview.”

Best podcasts for the people who don’t like podcasts

Logan Gustafson, a sophomore biology major from Tooele, said he isn’t a particular fan of podcasts because a vast majority of them are long open-ended discussions of a subject matter, usually controversial. Instead, he would prefer to give his full attention so he can enjoy a whole show.

If you’re not a fan of these long podcasts, there are shorter podcasts just for you. Instead of needing to keep up to date with the large quantities of content being produced, there are podcasts that specifically accommodate shorter times.

These types of podcasts include Welcome to Night Vale, which is a twilight zone inspired podcast that usually only runs for an average of 20 minutes. The podcast provides a creepy and weird cast of characters in a fictional town called Night Vale. This is the perfect podcast to get your scare on for the Halloween season.

While it is not as long as other podcasts, these shorter podcasts have their advantages. You can sit down and enjoy a well thought out narrative orchestrated by a team of writers. As opposed to a classic podcast format of a Q&A interview style that tends to be on the longer side.

University strives to improve experience for adult learners

Dixie State University administration is hopeful to create an adult learning program by the fall of 2020 that will help coordinate and administer programs for working adults.

Provost Michael Lacourse said he and a group of faculty and staff volunteers are in the process of building this new educational model to give working adults better access to university resources for higher education.

Darlene Dilley, assistant vice president for enrollment management, said an option that was discussed in a recent meeting was to offer courses and programs in a variety of forms such as online, in-person, blended (mix of online and in person), evenings, weekends, etc.

Lacourse said it will also be beneficial for adult learners to have access to services outside of the more traditional times.

A few of these services include admissions, purchasing textbooks, access to online classes and scheduling, tutoring and graduation.

Lacourse said they’re looking to answer two questions: How can the university create more convenient services for working adults, and how can the university create scheduling classes and educational programs in a way that is also convenient and accessible to working adults?

“As a comprehensive university… we are responsible for providing programming of all sorts for a wide diversity of individuals,” Lacourse said. “We need to find a way to provide [our resources] in a way that is more accessible.”

“We need to find a way to provide [our resources] in a way that is more accessible.”

Provost Michael Lacourse

Jacob Fink, a 44 year-old junior biology integrated science major from Tracy, California, said the university could improve their advertisement for resources available to students with special circumstances.

For example, Fink said he paid out-of-state tuition his first year at DSU after moving from California, but later found out he didn’t need to because he is a veteran. He said the university was helpful in fixing the issue and did refund him.

“I was very appreciative for that, but it would have been nice if I would have [known beforehand],” Fink said. “The more information available up front, the better.”

Fink said one of the really frustrating things about this semester is having classes that require specific time outside of class for field trips.

“I just don’t have that kind of flexibility in my schedule all the time,” Fink said.

Fink said he is a working father and it is challenging to balance his academics and time with his family. He plans his whole life six months in advance based around his class times, but when classes begin and he finds out about certain time commitments on different days — sometimes weekends — he has to find a way to schedule around another required time slot.

Fink said a solution would be for specific requirements similar to this be clearly stated in the class registration.

Lacourse said: “That’s a great point. We should be disclosing expectations for out of class activities in advance so that students can plan accordingly.” 

Dilley said the volunteer group of faculty and staff discuss these types of issues pertaining to adult learners with the goal to improve.

The group of faculty and staff recently sent out a survey to students asking why they chose to attend DSU, what their goals are at DSU, what their responsibilities are outside of school, and what services they currently use or would like to see provided at the university.

Dilley said the volunteers have been meeting since late 2017 and continue to meet quarterly, or more often if needed, to make future plans for the program.

“This is a very important initiative for the university; we are committed to building a program that meets the needs of our region,” Lacourse said.

OPINION: Cultural appropriation and you.

Cultural appropriation has shaped how we dress in recent years, especially during this spooky Halloween season.

In today’s society, cultural appropriation is a point for controversy. It can be difficult to understand if cultural appropriation is a real issue or a side effect of our society being more sensitive than the last.
Halloween is a prime time for this discussion, especially due to people wanting to dress up in attire, with or without variations, from different cultures around the world. Cultural appropriation is not something that we need to concern ourselves with because it is not something that can be appropriated.

“The idea that culture can be appropriated is false; However, when representing another culture or group that you are not associated with, be sure to do your research.”

Phillip de la vega, Staff Writer

According to the Oxford dictionary, cultural appropriation is the unacknowledged or inappropriate adoption of the customs, practices, ideas, etc. of one people or society by members of another and typically more dominant people or society.

To appropriate ones culture is to take the manifestation of a group of people. This can be confusing especially when it is something as complex as ideas. An example of what is typically seen as an appropriation of ones culture could be dressing up as a sexy version of a Incan woman.

Culture, as defined by 20th century theorist Richard Williams, can be broken down into three parts: Ideologies, a shared way of life and cultural production.

Cultural production is the object or physical creation of a representation of a culture such as art, music, clothes and so on. Because cultural production is usually a physical object that can be interacted with, this part of culture is able to be spread across the world farm faster comparative to ideologies or a shared way of life.

Appropriation, however, is the is the act of taking something for one’s own use or benefit typically without the owner’s permission according to the Oxford dictionary. This is akin to somebody breaking into your house just to take your favorite coffee mug. It’s not a pleasant experience for anyone. When considering appropriation in a context regarding cultural appropriation, it isn’t as easy to achieve.

While this is something that people can do, I disagree with the idea that culture can be appropriated in the first place. Instead it would be more accurate to say its just disrespectful because of the misrepresentation of the culture. This does not mean that you wont be challenged or met with critique if you misrepresent a culture. It is the unpleasant responsibility of people, in general, to make sure that their culture is not being misrepresented. This, unfortunately, means that people may misrepresent a unfamiliar culture even without consideration towards others.

The idea that culture can be appropriated is false; However, when representing another culture or group that you are not associated with, be sure to do your research. Misrepresenting a group of people can lead to ridicule and critique and I would advise that if you do, it is usually best to have someone from that group give you their blessing, opposed to recklessly donning attire that could be inconsiderate. This does not justify some peoples actions but instead is an explanation of responsibility.

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    OPINION: Tests are ineffective

    Studying for hours only to receive a bad grade on a test goes to show that testing is not always the answer.

    Tests are ineffective when it comes to showing students knowledge of a particular subject matter. After all, how exactly can you measure someone’s understanding by giving them the same test as everyone else who is taking the course? I for one have been in many situations where I know the subject and could apply it if needed, but when it comes to taking a test on what I have learned, there is no hope for me. 

    According to an article by the American Institute for Learning and Human Development, students are fully aware of the impact that tests have on their future and potential opportunities, and because of this, it may lead to irrational decisions that were not properly executed. 

    According to the article, “Because students know that test scores may affect their future lives, they do whatever they can to pass them, including cheating and taking performance drugs.”

    By having students take a test and fall below the expected grade, there is an automatic assumption that that student holds little knowledge of the subject matter and they came unprepared for it; however, this common misconception is far from the truth. 

    “[A test] evaluates student’s performance without considering external factors,” an article from Grade Power Learning stated. “Standardized tests don’t consider factors like test anxiety, home life, or the fact that some kids are extremely bright but just don’t test well.”

    There are many components that play into a students testing ability, but to simply say that a student knows little about the course material based on their test score is unreasonable and poor lack of judgment. 

    According to the Grade Power Learning article: “ It does not consider how much a student has grown over the course of the year. This can be a disservice to teachers who worked to help their students grow, and students who put in their best effort to improve but performed poorly on one test.”

    While there are students who are naturally gifted with testing abilities, there are others who may have a more difficult time with being put under that kind of pressure; I would know, I happen to be one of the many unfortunate.

    Listening to the lectures, attending class, and even spending time studying only to find that I had gotten a low score on yet another test, has been a struggle that I have dealt with for years. Like so many others, I try my best to give school my all, but my test scores may beg to differ at times.

    Now I do understand that testing of some sorts is important in certain circumstances, especially when seeing what a student may be lacking in so teachers could spend some extra time in that specific subject area, but to use it as a tool that has the potential to ruin a students academic career, is not the best way of going about it.

    “[A test] evaluates student’s performance without considering external factors,”

    Grade Power Learning

    There are far too many individualized thought processes, so how is allowing a select few determine what is best for students as a whole? We are taught to vocalize our differences, but standardized testing allows nothing of the sort and expects all students to have the same thought process in order to pass.

    I think that it is only fitting that we find a stronger system that works not only for a select few but the student body as a whole. With having standardized testing still present in the majority of classrooms, we are not standing united and building each other up, but weeding out the ones who may have a hard time understanding the standardized thought process.

    To resolve the issue at hand, teachers should provide other alternatives to test-taking. These alternatives include, but are not limited to, written demonstrations or presenting to the class what they have learned during the course.